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Prambanan Temple area and the Legend of Roro Jonggrang

Prambanan Temple is located in the Prambanan Tourism Park, approximately 17 km to the east of Yogyakarta, precisely in Prambanan Village, Bokoharjo District. The location is only about 100 m from the Yogya-Solo highway, so it is not difficult to find it. Part of the tourist area which is located at an altitude of 154 m above sea level is included in the Sleman Regency. while some are included in the Klaten area.

Prambanan Temple area and the Legend of Roro Jonggrang
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Prambanan Temple is the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia. Until now, it is not certain when this temple was built and on whose orders, however, there is a strong suspicion that Prambanan Temple was built around the middle of the 9th century by the king of Wangsa Sanjaya, namely Raja Balitung Maha Sambu. This assumption is based on the contents of the Syiwagrha Inscription found around Prambanan and currently stored in the National Museum in Jakarta. The inscription dating from 778 Saka (856 AD) was written during the reign of Rakai Pikatan.


The restoration of Prambanan Temple took a very long time, as if it had never been completed. The rediscovery of the largest building ruins, namely the Syiwa Temple, was reported by C.A. Lons in 1733. The first digging and recording attempts were carried out under the supervision of Groneman. Excavations were completed in 1885, including clearing the scrub and grouping the stone ruins of the temple.


In 1902, van Erp continued this effort. Grouping and identification of rubble stones is carried out in more detail. In 1918, the restoration of Prambanan Temple was resumed under the supervision of the Archaeological Service (Oudheidkundige Dienst) led by P.J. Perquin. Through this effort, part of the ruins of the Syiwa Temple can be reconstructed.

In 1926, a restoration committee was formed under the leadership of De Haan to continue the work that Perquin had carried out. Under the supervision of this committee, in addition to the rebuilding of the Syiwa Temple the results were getting better, preparations for the construction of the Apit Temple were also started.


In 1931, De Haan died and was succeeded by V.R. van Romondt. In 1932, the restoration of the two Apit temples was successfully completed. Restoration was forced to stop in 1942, when Japan took over the government in Indonesia. After going through a long and halting process due to war and a change of government, in 1953 the restoration of the Shiva Temple and two Apit Temples were declared complete. Until now, the restoration of Prambanan Temple is still being carried out in stages.

The original plan of Prambanan Temple is rectangular, consisting of an outer courtyard and three courts, namely Jaba (outer court), Tengahan (middle court) and Njeron (inner court). The outer yard is an open area that surrounds the outer court. The outer court is longitudinal with an area of ​​390 m2. This court was once surrounded by a stone fence which is now in ruins. The outer court is currently only an empty courtyard. It is not yet known whether there were any buildings or other decorations in this courtyard.

In the middle of the outer court, there is a second courtyard, which is a rectangular central courtyard covering 222 m2. The central courtyard was once surrounded by a stone fence which has now also collapsed. This court consists of four terraces, the deeper the higher. On the first terrace, which is the lowest terrace, there are 68 small temples lined up around, divided into four rows by connecting roads between the courtyards. On the second terrace there are 60 temples, on the third terrace there are 52 temples, and on the fourth terrace, or the top terrace, there are 44 temples. All temples in the central court have the same shape and size, namely the basic floor plan area of ​​6 m2 and a height of 14 m. Almost all the temples in the central court are currently in a state of destruction. All that remains is the ruins.


The inner court is the highest court and is considered the most sacred place. This court has a rectangular 110 m2 area, with a height of about 1.5 m from the surface of the top terrace of the central court. This court is surrounded by plaster and stone fences. On all four sides there is a gate shaped like a paduraksa gate. Currently only the gate on the south side is still intact. In front of each of the top court gates there is a pair of small temples, with a square base of 1.5 m2 and 4 m high.

In the inner court there are 2 rows of temples stretching north and south. In the west line there are 3 temples facing east. The temple that is located in the north is Vishnu Temple, in the middle is Shiva Temple, and in the south is Brahma Temple. In the eastern line there are also 3 temples facing west. These three temples are called the wahana (vehicle = vehicle) temple, because each temple is named according to the animal which is the god's ride. the temple lies before him.

The temple facing Vishnu Temple is the Garuda Temple, the one facing the Shiva Temple is the Nandi Temple (ox), and the one facing Brahma Temple is the Swan Temple. Thus, these six temples face each other to form a hallway. The Wisnu, Brahma, Angsa, Garuda and Nandi temples have the same shape and size, namely a square floor plan of 15 m2 with a height of 25 m. At the north and south end of the alley, there is a small temple opposite each other, called Candi Apit.


Prambanan Temple area and the Legend of Roro Jonggrang

SYIWA TEMPLE

When it was found, the Shiva Temple was in a bad condition. The restoration took a long time, which started in 1918 and only finished in 1953. It is called the Shiva Temple because there is a Shiva statue in this temple. Shiva Temple is also known as the Rara Jonggrang Temple, because in one of the rooms there is the Durga Mahisasuramardani Statue, which is often referred to as the Rara Jonggrang Statue. The body of the temple stands on a platform as high as 2.5 m. The Shiva Temple, which is located in the middle of the western line, is the largest temple. The basic plan is in the form of a 34 m2 square with a height of 47 m.

Along the base of the temple wall are decorated with carvings of two kinds of ornaments which are located alternately. The first is a picture of a lion standing between two kalpataru trees. These decorations are found on all sides of the foot of the Shiva Temple and the five other large temples.


On the foot walls on the north and south sides of the Shiva Temple, the lion decoration above is flanked by panels containing carvings of a pair of animals taking shelter under a kalpataru tree growing in a vase. The various animals depicted here include: monkeys, peacocks, deer, rabbits, goats, and dogs. On top of each tree were two birds perched.

On the other sides of the walls of the temple foot, both at the foot of the Shiva Temple and other large temples, panels with pictures of animals are replaced with panels bearing the images of kinara-kinari, a pair of human-headed birds, who are also taking shelter under a kalpataru tree.

The stairs to go up to the batur surface are located on the east side. The upper staircase is equipped with staircases whose walls are decorated with carvings of vines and animals. The cheek of the stairs is decorated with a wide open carved dragon's head with the figure of a god in its mouth. On the left and right of the stairs there is a small temple with a pointed roof with Shiva statue carvings on all four sides of its body.

At the top of the stairs there is a paduraksa gate leading to the hallway on the surface of the shelf. Above the threshold of the gate is a beautiful Kalamakara carving. Behind the gate are a pair of small temples that have niches in their bodies. The niche contains the statues of Mahakala and Nandiswara, the doorman gods.

On the surface of the batur there is a veranda about 1 m wide that surrounds the body of the temple. This hallway is equipped with a fence or ledge, so that it looks like a hallway without a roof. The hallway winds at an angle, dividing the temple wall into 6 sections. Along the body walls of the temple are decorated with rows of Lokapala statues. Lokapala are deities guarding the cardinal directions, such as Bayu, Indra, Baruna, Agni and Yama.

Ramayana reliefs are carved along the side of the ledge. The story of this Ramayana is carved clockwise, starting with the scene of Vishnu being asked to come down to earth by the kings to overcome the chaos made by Rahwana and ends with a scene where the construction of a bridge across the ocean is completed to Alengka State. The connection to the Ramayana story is a wall in the ledge of the Brahma Temple.

Above the ledge was lined with pearl decorations. Below the pearl, on the outer side of the ledge wall, there is a small niche with Kalamakara decorations on it. In the niche there are 2 carved motifs that are displayed alternately, namely a picture of 3 people standing holding hands and 3 people playing various types of musical instruments.

The entrance to the rooms in the body of the temple is on a higher terrace. To reach the upper terrace, there are stairs in front of each door to the room. In the temple body, there are four rooms that surround the main room which is located in the middle of the temple body. The entrance to the main room is through the room facing east. This room is an empty room without any statues or decorations. The entrance to the main room is located in line with the entrance to the eastern room. This main room is called the Shiva Room because in the middle of the room there is the Syiwa Mahadeva statue, namely Shiva standing on a lotus with one hand raised in front of the chest and the other flat in front of the stomach. The Shiva statue is located on a 60 cm umpak (foundation), in the form of a yoni with a drain along the edge of its surface. It is said that this Shiva statue depicts the King of Balitung from Mataram Hindu (898 - 910 AD) who is worshiped as Shiva.

There is no door u The link between the Shiva Room and the three rooms on the other side. The north, west, and south rooms have individual doors located directly in front of the stairs going up to the upper terrace. In the north room there is the Durga Mahisasuramardini statue, namely Durga as the goddess of death, which depicts the consort of King Balitung. Durga is depicted as an eight-armed goddess standing on the Nandi Ox facing the Vishnu temple. One of his right hand is resting on a mace, while the other three hands hold arrows, swords and discs, respectively. One left hand holds the head of the Asura, a dwarf giant standing on the head of a mahisa (ox), while the other three hold a bow, shield and flowers. This Durga statue is also called the Rara Jonggrang statue by the local community, because this statue is believed to be the incarnation of Rara Jonggrang. Rara Jonggrang is the king's daughter in local legend, who was cursed as a statue by Bandung Bandawasa.

In the western room there is the Ganesha statue in a cross-legged position on the padmasana (lotus throne) with the soles of the feet meeting each other. The palms of the hands rest on the knees in an outstretched position, while the trunk rests on the left arm. This Ganesha statue depicts the crown prince of King Balitung. the shoulder sling indicated that he was also a warlord.

In the southern room there is the Agastya statue or Shiva Mahaguru. This statue has a slightly fat and bearded posture. Mahaguru Shiva is depicted in a standing position facing Brahma Temple in the south with his right hand holding a prayer beads and the left hand holding a pitcher. Behind it, on the left is a fly repellent and on the right is a trident. It is said that this Mahaguru Shiva statue depicts a royal advisor priest.


The Vishnu Temple is located north of the Shiva Temple. The body of the temple stands on a platform that forms a ledge. The stairs to go up to the batur surface are located on the east side. Along the body walls of the temple are panels with sculptures depicting Lokapala.

Along the inner wall of the ledge is decorated with a drag panel containing Krisnayana reliefs. Krisnayana is the story of Krisna's life from the time he was born until he succeeded in occupying the throne of Kerajaaan Dwaraka.

Above the ledge was lined with pearl decorations. Below the pearl, on the outer side of the ledge wall, there is a small niche with Kalamakara decorations on it. In the niche there are carvings depicting Vishnu as a priest sitting with various hand positions.

Vishnu Temple only has 1 room with one door facing east. In the room, there is a statue of Vishnu standing on a yoni-shaped 'umpak'. Vishnu is depicted as a god with 4 hands. The right hand and back holds Chakra (Wisnu's weapon) while the left hand holds an oyster. The front right hand holds the club and the left hand holds a lotus flower.

The Brahma Temple is located south of the Shiva Temple. The body of the temple stands on a platform that forms a ledge. Along the body walls of the temple are panels with sculptures depicting Lokapala.


Along the inner wall of the ledge are decorated with a drag panel containing the continuation of the Ramayana story on the wall in the ledge of the Shiva Temple. This fragment of the Ramayana story in Brahma Temple tells the story of Rama's battle with the help of his younger brother, Laksmana, and the monkey army against Rahwana until Sinta goes wandering into the forest after being expelled by Rama, who doubts her purity. Sinta gave birth to her son in the forest under the protection of a hermit.


Above the ledge was lined with pearl decorations. Below the pearl, facing out, is a small alcove decorated with Kalamakara on it. In the niche there are carvings depicting Brahma as a priest sitting with various hand positions.

Brahma Temple also only has 1 room with one door facing east. In the room, there is a Brahma statue standing on a yoni-shaped umpak. Brahma is depicted as a deity who has four faces, each facing a different direction, and two pairs of hands. On the forehead on the face facing forward is the third eye which is called 'urna'. The Brahma statue was actually very beautiful, but now it is broken. The walls of the Brahma room are plain without decoration. On the walls on each side there is a protruding rock that serves as a place to place an oil lamp.


Prambanan Temple area and the Legend of Roro Jonggrang

WAHANA TEMPLE

Nandi Temple. This temple has one entrance staircase facing west, namely the Shiva Temple. Nandi is the holy ox of Lord Shiva. When compared with Garuda Temple and Angsa Temple which are on the right and left, Nandi Temple has the same shape, only slightly bigger and taller in size. The body of the temple stands on a platform about 2 m high. As found in the Shiva Temple, on the foot wall there are two motifs sculptures that are located alternately. The first is a picture of a lion standing between two kalpataru trees and the second is a picture of a pair of animals taking shelter under a kalpataru tree. On the tree perched two birds. Such images can also be found in other vehicle temples.


Nandi Temple has one room in its body. The stairs and the entrance to the room are located on the west side. In the room there is the Lembu Nandi Statue, Shiva's vehicle, in a lying position facing west. In the room there are also two statues, namely Arca Surya (sun god) who is standing on a carriage pulled by seven horses and Arca Candra (moon god) who is standing on a carriage pulled by ten horses. The walls of the room are not decorated and there is a stone protruding from each side of the wall which serves as a place to put an oil lamp. The walls of the hallway around the body of the temple are also plain without carving decoration.

Garuda Temple. This temple is located north of Nandi Temple, opposite Vishnu Temple. Garuda is Vishnu's mount. The shapes and decorations on the legs and stairs of Garuda Temple are similar to those in Nandi Temple. Although it is called Garuda temple, there is no Garuda statue in the room inside the temple. On the floor of the room there is a Shiva statue that is smaller than the one in Shiva Temple. This statue was found embedded under the temple, and in fact the place is not in the room.


Swan Temple. This temple is located south of Nandi Temple, opposite the Brahma Temple. The goose is Brahma's mount. The size, shape and decoration on the feet and steps of the Swan Temple are similar to those of the Garuda Temple. The room in the temple is empty. The walls of the room are also not decorated, there are only stones protruding from the walls on each side of the room which function as a place to put an oil lamp.


Prambanan Temple area and the Legend of Roro Jonggrang

APIT TEMPLE

Apit Temple is a pair of temples facing each other. It is located, respectively, at the southern and northern end of the passage between the two rows of large temples. These two temples have a square plan of 6 m2 with a height of 16 m. the body of the temple stands on a platform as high as 2.5 m. There is no veranda at the foot of the temple. Each of them has a ladder leading to the only room in his body. There is only something special about this temple, is when this temple has been rebuilt, it looks very beautiful.

GUARD TEMPLE

Apart from the six large temples and the two flanked temples described above, in the upper court there are still eight very small temples with a basic plan of about 1.25 m2. Four of them are located at each corner of the background, while the other four are positioned near the entrance gate to the upper court.


Prambanan's face now looks beautiful. In front of the temple complex, a stage for the Ramayana ballet and the Prambanan Tourism Park was built which can beautify the face of the Prambanan complex.


Prambanan Temple area and the Legend of Roro Jonggrang

Once upon a time in Central Java Island, there were two neighboring kingdoms, namely the Pengging Kingdom, which was ruled by Raja Pengging, and the Prambanan Kingdom, which was ruled by Prabu Baka. Prabu Baka was a giant who was big and had extraordinary powers. King Baka was notorious for being cruel because, in order to maintain his supernatural powers, he routinely performed sacrificial ceremonies by sacrificing humans. Despite his creepy form and cruel heart, Prabu Baka had a very beautiful daughter, named Rara Jonggrang.


King Pengging has long felt sad because his people often got harassment from the Prambanan Kingdom army. He wanted to crush the rulers of the Prambanan Kingdom, but they were too strong for him. To achieve his wish, Raja Pengging then ordered his son, Raden Bandung, to meditate and ask for strength from the gods. Raden Bandung succeeded in obtaining supernatural powers in the form of a genie, named Bandawasa, who always obeyed his orders. Since then the name has been changed to Raden Bandung Bandawasa.

Armed with his supernatural powers, Raden Bandung went to Prambanan with the Pengging army. After experiencing a fierce battle, Raden Bandung managed to kill Prabu Baka. With the permission of his father, Raden Bandung intended to establish a new government in Prambanan. When he entered the palace, he met Rara Jonggrang. Inevitably, Raden Bandung fell in love with the princess and proposed to her.


Rara Jonggrang did not want to be married to the young man who killed his father, but he did not dare to openly refuse. He subtly put forward the condition that, to be able to marry him, Raden Bandung must be able to build 1000 temples in one night. Raden Bandung agreed to Rara Jonggrang's request. As soon as the sun had set, he went to a clearing clearing sculptures that are located alternately. The first is a picture of a lion standing between two kalpataru trees and the second is a picture of a pair of animals taking shelter under a kalpataru tree. On the tree perched two birds. Such images can also be found in other vehicle temples.


Nandi Temple has one room in its body. The stairs and the entrance to the room are located on the west side. In the room there is the Lembu Nandi Statue, Shiva's vehicle, in a lying position facing west. In the room there are also two statues, namely Arca Surya (sun god) who is standing on a carriage pulled by seven horses and Arca Candra (moon god) who is standing on a carriage pulled by ten horses. The walls of the room are not decorated and there is a stone protruding from each side of the wall which serves as a place to put an oil lamp. The walls of the hallway around the body of the temple are also plain without carving decoration.

Garuda Temple. This temple is located north of Nandi Temple, opposite Vishnu Temple. Garuda is Vishnu's mount. The shapes and decorations on the legs and stairs of Garuda Temple are similar to those in Nandi Temple. Although it is called Garuda temple, there is no Garuda statue in the room inside the temple. On the floor of the room there is a Shiva statue that is smaller than the one in Shiva Temple. This statue was found embedded under the temple, and in fact the place is not in the room.


Swan Temple. This temple is located south of Nandi Temple, opposite the Brahma Temple. The goose is Brahma's mount. The size, shape and decoration on the feet and steps of the Swan Temple are similar to those of the Garuda Temple. The room in the temple is empty. The walls of the room are also not decorated, there are only stones protruding from the walls on each side of the room which function as a place to put an oil lamp.


Prambanan Temple area and the Legend of Roro Jonggrang

APIT TEMPLE

Apit Temple is a pair of temples facing each other. It is located, respectively, at the southern and northern end of the passage between the two rows of large temples. These two temples have a square plan of 6 m2 with a height of 16 m. the body of the temple stands on a platform as high as 2.5 m. There is no veranda at the foot of the temple. Each of them has a ladder leading to the only room in his body. There is only something special about this temple, is when this temple has been rebuilt, it looks very beautiful.


Prambanan Temple area and the Legend of Roro Jonggrang

GUARD TEMPLE

Apart from the six large temples and the two flanked temples described above, in the upper court there are still eight very small temples with a basic plan of about 1.25 m2. Four of them are located at each corner of the background, while the other four are positioned near the entrance gate to the upper court.


Prambanan's face now looks beautiful. In front of the temple complex, a stage for the Ramayana ballet and the Prambanan Tourism Park was built which can beautify the face of the Prambanan complex.

The legend of Rara Jonggrang


Once upon a time in Central Java Island, there were two neighboring kingdoms, namely the Pengging Kingdom, which was ruled by Raja Pengging, and the Prambanan Kingdom, which was ruled by Prabu Baka. Prabu Baka was a giant who was big and had extraordinary powers. King Baka was notorious for being cruel because, in order to maintain his supernatural powers, he routinely performed sacrificial ceremonies by sacrificing humans. Despite his creepy form and cruel heart, Prabu Baka had a very beautiful daughter, named Rara Jonggrang.


King Pengging has long felt sad because his people often got harassment from the Prambanan Kingdom army. He wanted to crush the rulers of the Prambanan Kingdom, but they were too strong for him. To achieve his wish, Raja Pengging then ordered his son, Raden Bandung, to meditate and ask for strength from the gods. Raden Bandung succeeded in obtaining supernatural powers in the form of a genie, named Bandawasa, who always obeyed his orders. Since then the name has been changed to Raden Bandung Bandawasa.

Armed with his supernatural powers, Raden Bandung went to Prambanan with the Pengging army. After experiencing a fierce battle, Raden Bandung managed to kill Prabu Baka. With the permission of his father, Raden Bandung intended to establish a new government in Prambanan. When he entered the palace, he met Rara Jonggrang. Inevitably, Raden Bandung fell in love with the princess and proposed to her.


Rara Jonggrang did not want to be married to the young man who killed his father, but he did not dare to openly refuse. He subtly put forward the condition that, to be able to marry him, Raden Bandung must be able to build 1000 temples in one night. Raden Bandung agreed to Rara Jonggrang's request. As soon as the sun had set, he went to a clearing clearing from Prambanan. He meditated for Bandawasa, his pet genie, and ordered the genie to build 1000 temples as requested by Rara Jonggrang.


Bandawasa then mobilized his friends, the genies, to help him build the temple his master wanted. Through the middle, Rara Jonggrang crept closer to the field to see the work of Raden Bandung. How shocked the princess was to see that the work was almost finished. As soon as he ran to a nearby village to wake up the girls in the village. Crowd they beat the pestle (rice pounder) against the mortar, as if they were pounding rice. Hearing the sound of people pounding rice, the roosters in the village woke up and started crowing loudly.


At that time Bandawasa had succeeded in building 999 temples and was completing the construction of the last one. Hearing the sound of a rooster crowing, Bandawasa and his friends immediately stopped their work and disappeared because they thought that dawn had arrived. Raden Bandung, who saw Bandawasa and his friends running, got up and got ready to convey his failure to Rara Jonggrang. After waiting for a long time, Raden Bandung was surprised because dawn had never arrived. He then investigated the oddity that happened.


Raden Bandung was very angry after learning of Rara Jonggrang's fraud. He then cursed the girl into a statue. Until now, the Rara Jonggrang statue can still be found at the Rara Jonggrang Temple, which is located in the Prambanan Temple complex. Raden Bandung also condemned the girls in Prambanan to become spinster because no one wanted to marry them.